Devoto, Droz, Geneva [first edition: , Droz, Paris]. Jahrhundert, Francke, Munich, especially pp. Thus he provides the adage that man enters into life shedding tears, and never ceases to do so until the day he dies. Mariana goes on to present a dark and powerful explanation for the origin of society. It is worth quoting his words in full: If man really had the strength and robustness to repulse dangers, and did not require the assistance of others, what sort of society would there be? Would men respect one another?
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Would there be any order to life? Would there be any mutual trust? Any love of humanity? Could any beast cause such carnage? Indeed, the mere thought of self- sufficient man is terrifying. Mariana takes the opportunity to criticize the kind of ancient scepticism increasingly current among educated Spaniards. De morte, especially pp.
Clearly paraphrasing Seneca, Ad Polybium de consolatione, 4. Compare this to the view of man offered in Aristotle, Politics, a. Limbrick and D. Thompson, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge]. On the influence of classical scepticism on early modern political thought, see C.
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Burnyeat ed. See also ibid. Mariana draws on the discussion of man as the stepchild of nature in Pliny, Naturalis Historia, vii; prooemium, pp. Physical weakness and resultant mutual dependence are a supreme expression of divine grace. The notion that man ignorant of law, justice and virtue is like a beast pervades classical, medieval and early modern literatures.
The transition from pre-civil to civil society The sombre treatment of human affairs continues. Mariana omits any reference to the Fall and the status of man before the Fall. Instead, he focuses on the condition of man immediately after the Fall.